The number of electric vehicles is expected to increase exponentially. EVs are becoming more and more affordable; within ten years, there will be more than 1 million electric vehicles in the Netherlands. Batteries and EV charging are both improving. There is an increasing number of decentralized energy resources and loads that operate with direct current, such as solar cells, batteries and EVs, and this results in DC microgrids for smart cities and EVs that potentially have more advantages than AC microgrids. DC microgrids allow more flexibility. Using an off-board power converter, they have no size and weight limitations, high charging power and enable vehicle-to-grid solutions. Parked EVs – at home or at work – are turned into power service providers, delivering flexibility by either charging or discharging based on the demand and supply of the energy system. This results in a better integration of renewable energy sources and more stability to the power grid. Other promising ways of EV charging are contactless charging, charging while driving (on-road charging) and a combination of inductive charging and self-healing asphalt.